Schizophrenia (Thought disorder)

    Schizophrenia.

    Schizophrenia is a chronic psychiatric illness that has an altered perception of reality that affects the way a person’s thought, act and to see the real world. They may see or hear things that don’t exist, speak in strange or confusing ways, believe that others are trying to harm them or feel like they’re being constantly watched. With an unclear line between the real and imaginary, people with schizophrenia may withdraw from the outside world or act out in confusion and fear.

    Early warning signs of schizophrenia.

    • Eccentric
    • Demotivated
    • Emotionless
    • Isolation
    • Neglecting their appearance
    • Self talk
    • Self laugh
    • Social withdrawal
    • Unfriendliness
    • Suspiciousness
    • Ethical breakdown
    • Flat expressions
    • Unsuitable laughter or crying
    • Insomnia
    • Silly statements
    • Poor concentration
    • இயற்கைக்கு முரணாக
    • ஊக்கமின்மை
    • உணர்ச்சி இன்மை
    • தனிமையாக உணருதல்
    • தன் தோற்றத்தை மறைத்து கொள்ளுதல்
    • தனக்கு தானே பேசி கொள்ளுவது
    • தனக்கு தானே சிரித்து கொள்ளுவது
    • சமூக ஈடுபாடின்மை
    • நட்புதன்மை இல்லாமை
    • அதிக சந்தேகம்
    • ஒழுக்கம் தவறுதல்
    • உணர்ச்சியற்ற வெளிப்பாடுகள்
    • பொருந்தாத சிரிப்பு அல்லது அழுகை
    • தூக்கம் இன்மையால் வரும் ஊபாதை
    • வேடிக்கையான அறிக்கைகள்
    • அதிக கவன குறைவு

    Symptoms of Schizophrenia.

    • Delusions
    • Hallucinations
    • Thought Disturbances
    • Disorganized speech
    • Disorganized behavior
    • Absence of normal behavior
    • கற்பனை எண்ணங்கள்
    • மனபிரம்மைகள்
    • சிந்தனை தடுமாற்றம்
    • பொருந்தாத பேச்சு
    • நடத்தையில் மாற்றம்
    • நடைமுறைக்கு மாறான நடத்தை

    The signs and symptoms of schizophrenia differ from person to person in pattern and severity. Every person with schizophrenia may not have all symptoms; the same may also change over a period of time.

    Hope for Schizophrenia.

    Although schizophrenia is a chronic disorder, we treat this very professionally in our Hospital. With the support of medication & therapy; many people with schizophrenia are able to function independently and live a satisfying and fulfilling life.

    Diagnosis.

    Diagnosis of schizophrenia involves ruling out other mental health disorders and determining that symptoms are not due to substance abuse, medication or a medical condition. Determining a diagnosis of schizophrenia may include:

    • Physical exam. This may be done to help rule out other problems that could be causing symptoms and to check for any related complications.
    • Tests and screenings. These may include tests that help rule out conditions with similar symptoms, and screening for alcohol and drugs. The doctor may also request imaging studies, such as an MRI or CT scan.
    • Psychiatric evaluation. A doctor or mental health professional checks mental status by observing appearance and demeanor and asking about thoughts, moods, delusions, hallucinations, substance use, and potential for violence or suicide. This also includes a discussion with family and personal history.
    • Diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia. A doctor or mental health professional may use the criteria in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), published by the American Psychiatric Association and also use International Classification of Disorder published by World Health Organization.

    Treatment.

    Schizophrenia requires lifelong treatment, even when symptoms have subsided. Treatment with medications and psychosocial therapy can help manage the condition. In some cases, hospitalization may be needed.

    A psychiatrist experienced in treating schizophrenia usually guides treatment. The treatment team also may include a psychologist, social worker, psychiatric nurse and possibly a case manager to coordinate care. The full-team approach may be available in clinics with expertise in schizophrenia treatment.

    Medications.

    Medications are the cornerstone of schizophrenia treatment, and antipsychotic medications are the most commonly prescribed drugs. They’re thought to control symptoms by affecting the brain neurotransmitter dopamine.

    The goal of treatment with antipsychotic medications is to effectively manage signs and symptoms at the lowest possible dose. The psychiatrist may try different drugs, different doses or combinations over time to achieve the desired result. Other medications also may help, such as antidepressants or anti-anxiety drugs. It can take several weeks to notice an improvement in symptoms.

    Because medications for schizophrenia can cause serious side effects, people with schizophrenia may be reluctant to take them. Willingness to cooperate with treatment may affect drug choice. For example, someone who is resistant to taking medication consistently may need to be given injections instead of taking a pill.

    Psychosocial Interventions.

    Once psychosis recedes, in addition to continuing on medication, psychological and social (psychosocial) interventions are important. These may include:

    • Individual therapy. Psychotherapy may help to normalize thought patterns. Also, learning to cope with stress and identify early warning signs of relapse can help people with schizophrenia manage their illness.
    • Social skills training. This focuses on improving communication and social interactions and improving the ability to participate in daily activities.
    • Family therapy. This provides support and education to families dealing with schizophrenia.
    • Vocational rehabilitation and supported employment. This focuses on helping people with schizophrenia prepare for, find and keep jobs. Most individuals with schizophrenia require some form of daily living support. Many communities have programs to help people with schizophrenia with jobs, housing, self-help groups and crisis situations. A case manager or someone on the treatment team can help find resources. With appropriate treatment, most people with schizophrenia can manage their illness.

    Hospitalization.

    During crisis periods or times of severe symptoms, hospitalization may be necessary to ensure safety, proper nutrition, adequate sleep and basic hygiene.

    Electroconvulsive Therapy.

    For adults with schizophrenia who do not respond to drug therapy, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) may be considered. ECT may be helpful for someone who also has depression.

    Coping and Support.

    Coping with a mental disorder as serious as schizophrenia can be challenging, both for the person with the condition and for friends and family. Here are some ways to cope:

    • Learn about schizophrenia. Education about the disorder can help motivate the person with the disease to stick to the treatment plan. Education can help friends and family understand the disorder and be more compassionate with the person who has it.
    • Join a support group. Support groups for people with schizophrenia can help them reach out to others facing similar challenges. Support groups may also help family and friends cope.
    • Stay focused on goals. Managing schizophrenia is an ongoing process. Keeping treatment goals in mind can help the person with schizophrenia stay motivated. Help your loved one remember to take responsibility for managing the illness and working toward goals.
    • Ask about social services assistance. These services may be able to assist with affordable housing, transportation and other daily activities.
    • Learn relaxation and stress management. The person with schizophrenia and loved ones may benefit from stress-reduction techniques such as meditation, yoga.